Sir Syed Journal of Education & Social Research (SJESR) is a scholarly, open access, quarterly, peer-reviewed and multi-disciplinary research journal published by Sir Syed College of Education Katlang Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The main objective of the SJESR is to provide a platform for researchers, academicians, professionals, practitioners and students to impart and share knowledge in the form of high quality empirical and theoretical research papers, case studies, literature reviews and book reviews. The Journal provides a forum for the publication of original papers on a variety of issues about social sciences. Preference is given to contributions based on empirical research. However, book reviews and theoretical articles of immense importance/relevance for social scientists are also published. The journal provides an international forum for the discussion and rapid dissemination of research findings in the field of Social Sciences ranging from pre-school to university level and the education of children with special learning needs. Additionally, SJESR invites commentaries and original opinion pieces and/or analysis of issues and events of concern to Social Sciences scholars that have international resonance. Views expressed in the journal are those of authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Sir Syed Journal of Education & Social Research (SJESR). Sir Syed Journal of Education & Social Research (SJESR) aims to provide expert and authoritative reviews and analyses of the most important developments across the rapidly expanding fields of education and social sciences. It also provides a unique forum by bringing together invited contributions from the foremost international experts, to examine new technologies and methodologies with the latest research on systems, simulations and standards. Sir Syed Journal of Education & Social Research (SJESR) is committed to publishing research of interest to academics, researchers and those concerned with mediating research findings to policymakers and practitioners. The journal presents research in a way that is accessible for the educated reader who may not share an author’s particular specialism or context. All submitted manuscripts via OJS are subject to initial appraisal by the Editor, and, if found suitable for further consideration, will undertake rigorous peer review, based on initial editor screening and anonymized refereeing by at least two anonymous referees.