Conflict of interest in research is also called competing interest. It is refers to situations in which financial or personal concern/ considerations may conciliate/compromise, or have the appearance of compromising a researcher’s professional judgment in conducting or report in research. It takes place when issues/concerns outside research might be convincingly/ reasonably perceived to affect the impartiality or objectivity of the work.

A conflict of interest take place when a financial, commercial, legal, or professional relationship with other organizations, or with the people working with them, that could influence the research. A conflict of interest arises when the basic interest is influenced/ prejudiced by a secondary interest that may harm professional judgment and objectives. Here, the basic interest refers to the objectivity/ neutrality of the work, including academic honesty, employee benefit, and societal responsibility, while the secondary interest covers not only financial benefit but also professional and personal benefits. Any financial interests or connections, direct or indirect, or other situations that might raise the question of bias in the work reported or the conclusions, implications or opinions stated including commercial and other sources of funding for the individual author(s) or for the associated department(s) or organization(s), personal relationships, or direct academic competition. Potential conflicts of interest must be declared—whether or not they actually had an influence—to allow informed decisions. In most cases, this declaration will not stop work from being published nor will it always prevent someone from being involved in a review process.

Conflicts may be:

  1. It may be personal include relationship, association, family, friends, relationships, and other close personal links.
  2. It may be ideological/ beliefs such as religious/political that is relevant to the work.
  3. It may be related to academic such as competitors or someone whose work is critiqued.
  4. It may be affiliation i.e. employment, on the advisory board for, or a member of an organization with an interest in the outcome of the work.
  5. It may be financial i.e. funding , services, goods and other payments received/ anticipated or expected by author/authors relating to the subject of the work or from an organization with an interest in the outcome of the work.
  6. It may be an intellectual property i.e. patents or trademarks owned by someone or their organization.


Conflict of Interest for Authors

Articles that are published in the SJESR will be accompanied by a conflict-of-interest disclosure statement, or a statement. Authors must declare all potential interests in a ‘Conflicts of interest’ section, which should explain why the interest may be a conflict. If there are none, the authors should state “The author(s) declare(s) that there are no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this paper.


Editors and Reviewers

Editors and reviewers must reject /decline to be involved with a submission when they have a recent/current publication or submission with author. Share or recently shared affiliations with author, collaborate or have close relation with author or financial interest/gain, or feel unable to be objective. Editorial staff must not use information gained through working with manuscripts for private gain.  Reviewers must declare any remaining interests in the ‘Confidential’ section of the review form, which will be considered by the editor. Reviewer(s) must declare any conflict of interest which may affect their review work. In cases of conflict of interest, the reviewer(s) are requested to notify the editorial team of their inability to review a particular research paper.

Complaints and Conflict of Interest

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